来源：上外培训网 发布时间：2014-04-01 作者：
China’s government restructuring campaign, an important part of political reform in China, has been formally staged. Restructuring government institutions is urgently needed to deepen the economic restructuring and promote economic and social development in China. It constitutes an important aspect of the reform of the state leadership system and a necessity in bringing the government closer to the people.
The basic framework of current government institutions was formed gradually during the time when the country’s economy was predominantly a planned one. Although China has adjusted and reformed government institutions on many occasions and made some progress in government restructuring since its implementation of reform and opening policies, many problems have not been fundamentally solved due to the restrictions imposed by historical conditions and general environment. Consequently, the incompatibilities of government institutions with the development of a socialist market economy have become increasingly apparent. The following problems are most conspicuous in this regard:
First, a bloated size and unwieldy organization of government institutions with overlapping functions and serious overstaffing have given rise to bureaucracy and red tape, bred corruption, promoted unhealthy practices, and created a heavy financial burden on the state.
Second, the functions of the government fail to be separated from those of enterprises. The government often has a direct hand in the operation of enterprises, which makes it difficult to establish an investment system based on scientific decision making, but easy to lead to non-accountability an wrong decision making. Consequently, the market can hardly play a fundamental role in the allocation of resources.
Third, the government manages economic and social affairs mainly through administrative means. Many of the matters that should have otherwise been dealt with by legislation or through social intermediate organizations are managed by extra government departments, thus creating extra responsibilities for the government.
We will carry out this reform in accordance with the requirements for developing a socialist market economy and by following the principle of simplification, uniformity and efficiency. We will shift the functions of the government and separate them from those of enterprises so as to establish a highly efficient, well-coordinated and standardized administrative system. We will improve the system of public servants, building a contingent of administrators who are highly competent and professionally specialized. The reform will focus on recognizing or canceling departments directly in charge of economic management, and on reinforcing macro-control departments as well as those that enforce the law and supervise law enforcement. In accordance with the requirements of integrating power with responsibility, we should readjust and reduce the responsibilities of various departments of the government and improve its administrative operating mechanism.