来源：上外培训网 发布时间：2013-08-20 作者：
For more than two centuries， American's colleges and universities have been the backbone of the country's progress. They have educated their technical， managerial and professional work force， and provided generation after generation of national leaders.
Today， educators from around the country are up to find many reasons for the excellence of the American universities.
But four historic acts stand out as watersheds.
First， education for the mass. In 1862， congress enacted the Land-Grand College Act， which essentially extended the opportunity of higher education to all Americans， including women and minorities.
Each state was permitted to sell large tracts of federal land， and use the proceeds to endow at least one public college.
Second， competition breeds success. Over the years， the decentralization and diversity of the America's colleges and universities have promoted competition for students and resources.
Competitive pressure first arose during the Civil War， when President Lincoln created the National Academy of Science， to advice congress on any subject of science and art.
The academy's impact really grew after World War 2， when a landmark report commissioned by the then president， argue that it was the Federal government's responsibility to provide adequate funds for basic research.
Instead of been centralized in government's laboratories， scientific research became decentralized in the American universities， and generated increasing investment.
It also gave graduate students research opportunities， and help spread scientific discoveries far and wide， to the benefit of industry， medicine， and society as a whole.
Thirdly， investing in the future. The end of World War 2， saw the passage of the Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944.
The law， which provided for college or vocational education for returning veterans， made the higher education system accessible in ways that were inconceivable in Europe， opening the doors of the best universities to men and women who had never dreamed of going to college.
Finally， promoting diversity. The creation of federal loan and subsidy programs， as well as outright grants for college students， brought much needed diversity to higher education， and further help to democratize access.
Since it's funded in 1965， Federal Family Education Loan Program has funded more than 74 million student loans， worth more than 180 billion dollars.
the Land-Grand College Act：also known as The Morrill Land-Grant Acts. It was United States statutes that allowed for the creation of land-grant colleges， including the Morrill Act of 1862 and the Morrill Act of 1890 （the Agricultural College Act of 1890）。
Servicemen's Readjustment Act：
The G.I. Bill （officially titled Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944） was an omnibus bill that provided college or vocational education for returning World War II veterans （commonly referred to as GIs） as well as one year of unemployment compensation. It also provided many different types of loans for returning veterans to buy homes and start businesses. Since the original act， the term has come to include other veteran benefit programs created to assist veterans of subsequent wars as well as peacetime service.
The Federal Family Education Loan Program （FFEL） is the largest of the U.S. higher education loan programs. FFEL was initiated by the Higher Education Act of 1965 and is funded through a public/private partnership administered at the state and local level. In 2007-08， FFEL served 6.5 million students and parents， lending a total of $54.7 billion in new loans （or 80 percent of all new federal student loans）。 Since 1965， 60 million Americans have used FFEL loans to pay for education expenses.
9.13高级口译Spot Dictation 解析
本次高口听力的话题为 U.S higher education.在考前先预读文章，按我在课堂讲的考前“四步法”，先迅速搜索文章高频词如“education， American， generation， college， university”，从而抓住主题，并可选择2~3个高频词并符号化。本文所涉及的词汇受话题所限，比较简单，关键是一些长词的缩写。 在近期的新东方口译考前模考讲评及冲刺串讲中，我将考试历年听写题的最常用缩写法，和历年出现的“十大高频词”为大家作了总结。这次考试它们的再次出现是一种必然。
参加明年考试的同学，针对这一部分考试，应在考前加强英文单词的速记练习，并将历年听写考试出现的高频词的缩写滚瓜烂熟，在考场做到耳到手到。这一部分能力的提高，对后面的Note Taking and Gap Filling 题目的笔记很有帮助。