上外口译指导:高级口译听力的制胜法宝

来源:上外培训网   发布时间:2013-12-08   作者:上外培训网

  上外口译指导:高级口译听力的制胜法宝,上外口译培训中心咨询热线:  [徐汇教学点]:021-51099488  [杨浦教学点]:021-51012921

  高级口译第一阶段考试中的听力测试分为4部分:spot dictation, listening comprehension, note-taking & gap-filling, listening & translation. 这四部分各有特点,但要想各个击破,全面开花,笔记始终是关键。

  1. spot dictation

  在这个部分,考生将听到一篇350词左右的短文,文章题材广泛,涉及科技,文化,经济,外交等方面。录音播放一遍,语速为150词/分钟,文章中留出20处空格要求考生填写,填写部分的词或短语长度以6个为限,一般以4词为多。录音播放完毕后有4分钟左右时间整理答案。这部分考题其实没太多技术含量,拼的就是速度和准确性,要快,准,狠的捕捉到答案,得依靠短时记忆和笔录能力,而巧妙精确的笔记在听写过程中省时省力,答案整理过程中能激活一遍录音留下的记忆,让考生迅速正确的判断和补充残缺不全的词和短语。1)建立一套方便实用的缩略语体系。例如:↗(improve), >(more/more than), <(less/less than),= (equal to), 2 (to), C (see), eg (for example), info (information), prof (professor), Am (America/American), std (stand/standard), W (world/women), uni (university), edu (education/educational)等等。缩写符号一定要固定,慢慢建立条件反射,耳朵一听到某个词,手就自动给出特定缩写,整理答案时则能见形知意,毋庸推敲。2)气定神闲,利用录音朗读非填空内容的时间从容书写。听录音时没有必要speaker念到哪里眼睛就追到哪里,而应迅速记录眼前空格里的字词,同时用余光留意下一个空前面的两个字(定位词),当念到该词时直接跳至下一空格准备记录其中内容: 不浪费一秒钟,不放过一个空。

  2. listening comprehension

  listening comprehension的题型主要是考生在CET4/6中就见惯的talks & conversations,难度较低,形式老套,大有希望拿到高分,但有相当多考生因一时大意而错失得分良机,究其原因往往是听录音时走神遗漏细节,或者内容太多,以至于听时了然回头茫然。这个时候笔记的作用又突现出来:简单几笔,帮助考生集中注意力,同时为回忆问题对应内容提供可靠依据。

  例:2003年9月考试Listening Comprehension question 11: What nationality is the woman being interviewed?

  A. American B. British

  C. Russian D. German

  You will hear:

  Man: Ms. Sharman, we all know that you have a place in history as Britain's first astronaut. I don‘t think any of us has any plans to follow you into the space, but we certainly want to know how you set about getting yourself into orbit.

  Women: I was driving my car home from work. I was trying to listen to some music really. I was just flicking through some radio stations finding some light music. And the advert went: astronaut wanted, no experience necessary and then went on to describe that the Russians had offered opportunity to somebody from the United Kingdom to train and then to blast off on one of their rockets and to do experiments in space. I thought “Wow! Yes! This is really something I really want to do!” Because I had never thought about being an astronaut before that. I mean nobody tells you at school that if you studies sciences and keep up with your languages then maybe one day you can be an astronaut.…

  Woman: There was never the opportunity for anybody from this country to be an astronaut. Now maybe if I had grown up in Russia or America maybe that would have been an ambition.

  四个选项都是国家的形容词形式,一看便知是和nationality相关问题。可是文章中分散出现过Britain, Russia, America,如果不做些笔记,整个interview听完了以后印象也可能模糊了。所以,不妨在听的过程中对选项进行适当标注:

  opportunity↙A. American B. Britain→W from

  ↖C. Russian D. German

  ↘want astro

  这样一来便百问不倒了。

  3. note-taking & gap-filling

  本部分录音为长度700 词左右,语速约170词/分钟的文章,只放一遍,要求考生边听边记录重点。之后考生会得到所听内容的summary,长度200词左右,其中有20处空白要求填写,每空一词。这是绝大多数人感到最头疼的一个部分,得分超过10分(满分20分)的人极少,撇开听力理解能力本身的问题,主要原因是笔记质量差,不懂得该记什么怎么记。1)笔记要有选择性。既然最后要补充的是summary而非原文,那么需要记录的肯定是表达文章主旨及基本内容的词,细节性的东西完全可以一听而过。

  例如:Business people in Japan and some Latin American countries like to stand close together as they talk. These people partially judge how close they are to agreement in their negotiations by how physically close they're standing or sitting next to each other. Now Americans, on the other hand, do not want other people invading their personally space. This is especially important to American men. If an American businessman were negotiating with a Japanese man and the Japanese man began to move toward the American, the American would most likely begin to back away. This could result in both men becoming suspicious of each other and it could result in poor communications between them. (2004年9月N&G)全篇文章主题是不同文化背景的人在商业活动中行为方式的差异。横线部分的细枝末节不可能进入仅200字的 summary,那么根本无须做笔记。2)笔记的书写方式有两个特性:A. 简略性。做spot dictation中采用的各种缩略手法又可以派上用场了。B. 条理性。笔记最好能体现文章主题思想的发展,这样在补充summary时才能让笔记里的词对号入座。仍然以上面的一段文字为例,笔记可以为:Jp & Lt Am cls /cls agmt nego= phy cls / Am × invd pers spc esp. M. 其中 “=” 表示定义, “×” 表示否定。

  4. Listening Translation

  听译内容分为单句和段落两部分。单句长度30词左右,段落为100词左右,语速约150词/分钟。单句间隔50秒,段落间隔200秒供学生翻译书写。做听译笔记的原则是:记内容而非语言。听译内容都只放一遍,短短的时间,要理解原文,还要将其译成目的语,根本没有余地供考生字斟句酌。换言之,碰上太烦琐的内容,不必强求十分精准,以抓住主要信息为首要任务。句子听译和段落听译的笔记要区别对待。句子转瞬即逝,没有上下文做参考,越想把笔记记得详细恐怕越影响理解,损失的信息也越多。所以,句子听译部分的笔记应主要记下数据,人名,地名,时间,列举项目,句子里其他内容就留给大脑记忆吧。段落听译的笔记则应记得比较详细,但也应该根据内容性质挑选侧重点,仓促间可省略掉非要素性的部分。

  例如:Police said that about five hundred homes were washed away by floods after a typhoon struck the west coast of the island yesterday bringing driving rains and winds of up to eighty miles per hour. The typhoon flooded wide areas of the island and crippled communications and power supplies. All domestic flights were cancelled yesterday and the international airport was closed for about five hours. Government radio reported that two passenger ferries had been sunk but gave no details of casualties. It will be some time before we hear the final casualty figures. 其实这种关于灾难的新闻报道性质的内容,重要信息应该是:time, location, damage, casualty, influence. 笔记可记为:500 home floo← 台 W isl yest→ rai&win 80m/h ∥ flood wide / × commu & pow∥dome 飞 × int airp 关 5h ∥ 2 ferr sunk ×dtl casu∥tm → final casu 而原文里什么“police said” “government radio reported that…”都没必要去记。

  听力部分笔记的记法说起来挺简单,但必须以良好的听力理解能力为基础,并需多多练习方可熟能生巧。做笔记的意识和能力一旦加强,不但听力考试受益非浅,口译考试胜算也高了很多。

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