来源：上外培训网 发布时间：2015-04-17 作者：
Listening Comprehension 1
Questions 1 to 5 are based on the following conversation.
Man: Do you know the name the American flag was once called?
Woman: Didn’t some people used to call it the Star - Spangled Banner, like national anthem?
Man: You’re right.
Woman: I’ve heard it referred to as old glory.
Man: Also correct. The most popular name is the stars and stripes, based on its design. At the start of the revolutionary war in 1775, the American flag had a British flag in the upper left corner. But after the declaration of independence in 1777, the British flag was no longer appropriate as part of the American flag. On June, 4th, 1777, the Continental of Congress resolved that the flag of the United States be 13 stripes, alternating red and white, with 13 white stars in a blue field. But there was no official arrangement for the stars.
Woman: Is that the flag Betsey Ross made?
Man: In 1890, William Canby, claimed that his grandmother Betsey Ross, a Philadelphia seamstress had made the first United States flag. Although she made flags during the revolutionary war, most historians, myself included, do not support this claim.
Woman: I have a question. Why did the 1775 flag incorporated the British flag if the colonists were already fighting for independence.
Man: Actually, the colonists did not at first seek for independence. So the Union Jack, another name for the British flag remained in the American flag because there was still a connection to England. By 1794, two new states joined the union. Congress decided to add two stars and two stripes to the flag. It ordered a fifteen-stripe flag used after May 1st, 1795.
Woman: But doesn’t our flag today have only 13 stripes?
Man: Exactly. As more states came into the union, Congress realized that a new star and a new stripe for each state would make the flag too cluttered. Samuel Chesteraid, a navy captain, proposed a flag of 13 stripes, one for each of the original colonies, and a star for each state. Congress accepted the idea, on April 4th, 1818. It sets the number of stripes at 13 again. It ordered a new star to be added to the flag on the July 4th after a state joined the union.
Q1: There have been several names the American flag was once called, which of the following is not one of these names?
Q2: What is the most popular name of the American flag according to the man?
Q3: How many stripes and stars were there on the American flag when the flag was first made?
Q4. Who proposed a stripe for each of the original colonies and a star for each state?
Q5: Which of the following statements is true, according to the conversation?
Listening Comprehension 2
Questions 6 to 10 are based on the following news.
In recent years, food shortages have led to price rises and unrest in many import-dependent countries, including many in the Africa. In the 2009 G-8 summit in Italy, major industrial countries promised more than $20billion over three years to improve food access to Africans and others hit by high prices. This latest summit, which begins later on Friday, is due to discuss the issue. However, its main focus will be continuing concerns that the euro zone debt crisis could trigger a global slump. On Thursday, confidence in European banks was undermined by ratings agency Moody’s, which cut the credit ratings of 16 Spanish banks. Mr. Obama has urged European leaders to do more to stimulate growth, fearing the euro crisis could spread to the US.
The U.S. has plans in place to attack Iran if other measures fail to stop it developing nuclear weapons, Washington’s envoy to Iran says. He said the U.S. hoped diplomacy and sanctions would persuade Iran to alter its nuclear program, but the military option was ready. US President Obama has previously said military action has not been ruled out. The US and its allies say Iran is developing a nuclear bomb, and an accusation Tehran desires. Talks between Iran and six world powers are due to resume in Baghdad on 23 May. Both Israel and the US have said they consider military force a last resort to stop Iran using its uranium enrichment program to make a weapon.
Nokia Company is tiring through its cash reserves at an unsustainable rate. Raising what some analysts say, are serious questions about the struggling finish phone maker’s ability to stabilize its finances in a month ahead. The company could even be at risk of default if it fails to slow the burning of its cash. Over the past five quarters, the onetime darling of mobile telecoms has eroded its cash pile by 2.1 billion Euros - a rate that would wipe out its entire 4.9 billion Euros reserves in a couple years. Analysts on average expect the company will burn through almost 2 billion Euros more in just three quarters, while the most bearish see the company wiping out its 4.9 billion Euros net cash buffer completely next year.
Electricity prices are the biggest component of the so-called Brazil cost, the mix of taxes, high interest rates, labor costs, infrastructure bottlenecks and other issues that have caused the economy to become less competitive. After a decade of strong performance, Brazil grew below the Latin American average in 2011 and so far this year. Brazil's average electricity cost of $180 per megawatt hour is exceeded only by Italy and Slovakia, according to a 2011 study based on data from the International Energy Agency.
High electricity rates have contributed to stagnant investment and production in energy-intensive industries. Electricity accounts for 35 percent and in the same proportion of the car industry's production costs.
At least 21 people were killed on Tuesday in an attack in northern Syria; a member of team of U.N. monitors caught in the incident said they were in rebel hands "for their own protection." When Reuters asked one of the four monitors by phone if they were being held prisoner, he said: "We are safe with the rebel Free Army." A spokesman for the rebel military council said the rebels were working on a safe exit for the monitors. An internal U.N. document obtained by Reuters said that a total of six monitors were under rebel "protection" in a "friendly environment." The internal U.N. document confirmed the U.N. team in Syria will conduct a petrol to pick up the men in U.N. military observers on Wednesday.
Q6: What will be the main focus of the latest G8 summit due Friday?
Q7: What does the US envoy to Israel say about the issue of Iran’s nuclear program?
Q8. How much is Nokia company’s total cash reserves in Euros?
Q9. The so-called Brazil cost has made the economy less competitive, which of the following are the biggest component of the Brazil cost?
Q10. According to an internal U.N. document, how many U.N. military monitors were in the hands of the Syrian rebels?
Listening comprehension 3
Questions 11 to 15 are based on the following interview.
W: Governor, I appreciate your taking the time to meet with me.
M: My pleasure.
W: The Employee Monitoring Law has received a great deal of media attention recently. However, many Illinois citizens are still very confused. What exactly does the new law allow?
M: The new law permits employers to listen in on their workers’ phone conversations. The law permits any listening that serves educational, training or research purposes. It allows for both computer and phone monitoring.
W: How does this law come about?
M: Well, it was originally conceived by the telemarketing industry. This industry, which uses the telephone to sell its products in services, needed a way to monitor its employees’ sales performance. The retail industry is also a big proponent of the law. Recently, I spoke with the president of the Illinois Retail Merchants Association. He told me the law is helping to make sure that Mrs. Smith gets the red dress in size 6 rather than size 16, which may have been entered into the computer by mistake.
W: So in other words, the law is meant to monitor the quality of customer service course.
M: Yes, for courtesy, efficiency and overall service.
W: Well then, why all the opposition? I heard that many groups, from unions to trade associations, are clearly furious about this law.
M: Yes, I know. Our office has been flooded with calls and letters. The problem is, the law does not specify whether or not employers must tell employees each time they are being monitored or just issue a one-time blanket warning. Also, only one person must agree to the monitoring, but the law does not state who must agree, the employee or the supervisor. The scope of the law is so broad that some people find it frightening.
W: Yes, it sounds like there are many unanswered questions. I appreciate your speaking with me, Governor. Thank you very much.
M: You’re welcome.
11. Who is being interviewed by the woman journalist?
12. They are talking about a law. What is the law about?
13. By which of the following was the law originally conceived?
14. What purpose is the law meant to serve?
15. Why are so many people opposed oppose to the law?
本篇对话为一位女记者对伊利诺伊州州长的采访，询问关于该州新推出的《员工监控法案》(Employee Monitoring Law),问题涉及该法案适用范围、目的，以及因此引发的反对和质疑，总体难度适中。问题设置比较常规，听懂对话大意就基本能够解决。唯一一道细节题问道该法案最初使用的领域，要求考生听懂“电话营销”(telemarketing industry)一词。不过说话人在提出这一概念后立即用一个例子进行解释，可以帮助考生理解。
Listening Comprehension 4
Questions 16 to 20 are based on the following talk.
As long as there has been crime, there have been ways to solve it. One of the oldest methods is interrogation, a method in which the police question people who might have committed the crime or who might have information about the crime. Interrogation can help the police to establish many basic facts, but modern techniques for solving crime include more complex scientific methods.
Let me talk first about a system often called “crime hotlines”. In some cases, where law enforcement personnel have difficulty finding a criminal, they turn to private citizens for help in solving a crime. This system allows people to make a phone call or access a website and give information to the police anonymously. This can often be effective when people are afraid to give information in public. Sometimes, a family member may have committed the crime, and another family member finally decides to call the police and give the information they have.
Second, fingerprinting. Each person’s finger print is unique. The ancient Chinese used finger prints to sign legal papers. What better way to identify an individual? Yet, it was only in the late 19th century that finger prints were first used to identify criminals. A variety of scientific techniques make it possible for finger prints to be lifted from most surfaces. Then, they can be compared to finger prints the police have on file.
A relatively new technique that crime-fighters are now using is called “psychological profiling”. Criminal psychologists look at the crime and the way it was committed. Based on this information, they try to understand the personality and motivation of the person who committed the crime. Then they can focus their search on people who match this profile.
In some cases, private citizens are finding ways to solve crimes as well. With a little knowledge of electronics, anyone can put hidden cameras in a home or office. In the 1990s as an example, there were some cases where nannies were accused of abusing the children they were paid to care for. Hidden cameras were used to prove the nanny’s guilt. However, the technique is controversial because it involves issues of privacy.
Finally, let me discuss DNA. Of the most recent crime-solving techniques used, DNA is proving very effective. Each person, with the exception of identical siblings, has a unique DNA coding system. So, if criminals leave anything that can be tested at the scene of the crime, such as blood or hair, they can be identified. DNA was used to solve a crime for the first time in England in 1987. Since that time, it has become widely used, and it’s considered 99% accurate. DNA testing can also be used to prove that a person is innocent. Many prisoners have been released because that DNA evidence proves that they did not commit the crime of which they were convicted.
16. When did people start to use finger printing to identify criminals?
17. In using psychological profiling to find a criminal, people have to match several factors. Which of the following is not one of these factors?
18. Which is one of the oldest methods use to solve crime according to the talk?
19. Why is the use of hidden cameras in solving a crime controversial?
20. Which of the following statements is true about DNA as a crime-solving technique?
本段讲座介绍刑事案件侦破(crime-solving)的方法，包括传统的讯问(interrogation)、举报热线(crime hotlines)、指纹鉴定(finger printing)，以及相对较新的方法，包括心理档案法(psychological profiling)、摄像头监控、DNA鉴定等。