来源：网络 发布时间：2014-09-17 作者：上外口译培训
Wild claims on labels of worthless medicines are much less frequent than there were years ago. But some over-the-counter drugs are still being promoted by tall stories, sometimes told in booklets or through advertising rather than on the label.
Infants, pregnant women, the sick and those who are dieting may need special supplements. But the family physician is the best authority on what vitamin supplements are needed.One tall story is that every American today suffers from a vitamin or mineral deficiency and needs vitamin supplements. This isn’t so. Vitamins and minerals are plentiful in our food supply. Eating a variety of foods makes it almost certain that you will get a full amount of these nutrients.
If your doctor does recommend supplements, take the suggested does — no more. Some people take or give vitamins on the principle that if a little is good, twice as much is better. Excessive doses of certain vitamins are known to be poisonous.
If you are overweight, don’t fall for a formula that promises you a slim, trim figure without dieting or calorie counting. To reduce, you must consume fewer calories than you use up in daily living.
The energy-producing or heat-producing value of food is measured in calories. One calorie is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water one degree centigrade. If calories are not used in producing heat or energy, they build fat.
If you need to lose only a few pounds, you can probably work out your own diet. But if you need to lose many pounds, have your doctor plan a diet for you. Crash diets can break down your health, not your weight.
Beware of cosmetics that make exaggerated claims or promises. There are no quick or easy cures for spots. Spots on the face are caused by a combination of factors. No cream that comes in a jar can cure them.
Don’t trust any cream or gadget (small device) that promises to give you curves where you want them, or take them from where they are not wanted. Any cream that could do this would not be safe to use and there are no gadgets that are effective for spot reducing.
The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act protects the consumer by prohibiting any statements on labels or packages that are false or misleading.
1. What would be the best title for the passage?
A. Nutrient Deficiency
B. Exaggerated Claims
C. Food Supplements
D. Calorie Consumption
2. Vitamin supplements may be recorded by____
A. the elderly
B. the handicapped
D. people on diets
3. The phrase “fall for”(para 5) is closest in meaning to_____
A. count on
B. settle for
C. turn down
D. work out
4. The author warns in the passage that acne______
A. is the disease caused by a vitamin deficiency
B. is incurable by any cream from a drugstore
C. will break down health if left untreated
D. will not responded to any known treatment
5. According to the passage, overstatements about products_____
A. are prohibited by law
B. are made through advertising
C. are printed on parcels and packages
D. are currently few and far between
6-10 UC Berkeley---College of Natural Resources
When Shelton Johnson was 5, his family took him to Berchtesgaden National Park in the Bavarian Alps. To this day, he remembers his sense of awe.“The mountains, the sky being so close — it affected me profoundly,” said Mr. Johnson, who now works as a ranger at Yosemite National Park in California.
In 23 years on the job, Mr. Johnson, 52, has been equally struck by how few of his fellow African-Americans visit the national parks, Yosemite included. A few years ago, he decided to do something about it.In a plaintive letter to Oprah Winfrey, he wrote:“Every year, America is becoming increasingly diverse, but that diversity is not reflected in the national parks, even though African-Americans and other groups played a vital role in the founding of national parks. If the national parks are America’s playground, then why are we not playing in the most beautiful places in America?”
“The Oprah Winfrey Show” recently aired two episodes from Yosemite in response to Mr. Johnson’s appeal.
The National Park Service is expanding its efforts to diversify both its guests and its work force as the agency prepares to celebrate its centennial in 2016.
Studies and surveys show that visitors to the nation’s 393 national parks — there were 285.5 million of them in 2009 — are mainly non-Hispanic whites, with blacks the least likely group to visit. The Park Service now says the problem is linked to the parks’ very survival.“If the American public doesn’t know that we exist or doesn’t care, our mission is potentially in jeopardy,” said Jonathan B. Jarvis, who took over as director of the Park Service last year.
In a Park Service survey it commissioned in 2000, only 13 percent of black respondents reported visiting a national park in the previous two years.
Jim Gramann, a visiting social scientist with the Park Service who is overseeing a review of a follow-up survey in 2008 and 2009 that is to be released early next year, said the gap persisted.“The demographic face of America is not reflected in national park visitation, with a few exceptions,” Mr. Gramann said.
But some officials acknowledge that the parks may not seem welcoming to specific ethnic groups. They cited rules that limit the number of people in picnic areas or the number of tents that can be pitched at specific sites, which can clash with the vacation style. of extended Latino families.But no group avoids national parks as much as African-Americans. The 2000 survey found that blacks were three times as likely as whites to believe that park employees gave them poor service and that parks were “uncomfortable places.”
Attendance tends to be more homogenously white at wilderness parks like Yosemite, where a 2009 survey found that 77 percent of the visitors were white, 11 percent Latino, 11 percent Asian and 1 percent black.
Mr. Johnson said he was more likely to meet someone from Finland or Israel in the park than from, say, Harlem or Oakland, Calif.“It’s something that’s pervasive in the culture — it doesn’t matter whether you’re Oprah or a postal worker,” Mr. Johnson said.
6.When his family took Shelton Johnson to the national park,he___
A. couldn’t help but admire the sight
B. did not see many fellow black visitors
C. made up his mind to work as a park ranger
D. found the mountain blocking the view of the sky
7. Why did Mr.Johnson write Oprah Winfrey ,the American entertainment_______
A. Because Oprah Winfrey would air her opinion in ”the Oprah Winfrey
B. Because Oprah Winfrey related easily to black people as a black
C. Because he wanted what he saw in the park to be brought to public
D. Because he knew no other person well enough to solve the problem
8. According to the passage, the National Park Service_____
A. faces the survival problem for lack of funds
B. has a history of about one hundred years
C. does not care about the number of visitors to the parks
D. does not survey the groups of visitors to the parks
9. Poor attendance of black people in national parks is primarily due to_____
A. the remote possibility of meeting fellow black visitors
B. the clash between the service items and their lifestyle
C. the uncomfortable places allocated for their picnics
D. the discriminatory treatment from the park employees
10. Which group of the following visitors is Mr. Johnson least likely to at Yosemite?
A. Asian visitors
B. European tourists
D. Hispanic whites
11-15 (来自The Irish Times)
The number of people emigrating from Ireland is currently estimated at 30,000 annually. There is no doubt that the bulk of young Irish emigrants end up in London. And while some of their problems are unique to this generation, many of them work in the same jobs and live in the same conditions as endless previous generations of emigrants to Britain.
While some Irish take their degrees to London and use them to get jobs in the burgeoning service industry, for many others who left school in their teens and experienced months, if not years, of unemployment their second act on reaching London is to sign on for social welfare. Their first, and most difficult, is finding somewhere to live.
Social welfare benefits, when they include a rent allowance, are better in England. For a young unemployed man or woman, living at home with little or no unemployment assistance in Ireland, this can seem an attractive proposition, offering independence, a subsistence income and at least the hope of a job in a city where unemployment, while real, is a lot lower than in Ireland. Many young Irish emigrants go straight on the dole when they arrive in England. Some find jobs fairly quickly, others remain on the dole for months.
Andrew Fox is living on the dole, and is also in receipt of housing benefit. And he is living in relative comfort, as he's staying in Conway House, the hostel for young Irish men run by the Catholic Church in Kilburn. This costs ￡50 a week for bed and breakfast, and all the young men there spoke glowingly of the facilities it offers and the welcome they receive from staff. There was a 300 per cent increase in demand for places in this hostel in the first six months of last year.
But those who get into Conway House are the lucky ones and there is a six month time limit on residence there. It has a capacity for just 300, a drop in the ocean, and thousands of young Irish emigrants live in squats across north London. The squats are empty houses, many of them owned by the local council. They may be being prepared for sale into the private sector. Sometimes the council boards up the windows or removes the stairs, and the electricity is usually cut off. The conditions vary widely in the squats, from those in houses which are in good condition and where the illegal tenants are painters and decorators and do the place up, to those in bad repair where the squatters live on mattresses on the floors in rooms lit only by candles. If they reconnect the electricity they face arrest and charges for stealing it.
Jobs are easier to come by than homes. But many of the jobs involve hard work, long hours and no security or protection. This is particularly true in the building trade. London is experiencing a building boom and many of the subcontractors are Irish. Like in the 1950's, there are queues of young men outside the Irish pubs and cafes at 5.30 on Monday mornings, waiting to be driven to a site maybe miles away. Often there are hundreds of young Irish men and even if they do get work they rarely get back before 7 p.m. Wages are paid cash in hand. The men are not taxed and while they don't tell the contractor they are signing on, he doesn't ask either. And if they no are injured, they are not insured.
Sister Joan Kane of the Haringey Irish Community Centre deals with the homeless many of them single men who have worked on the buildings all their lives. 'Some of the men in their forties coming in here worked very, very hard on the casual labouring scene. Then they got injured one day doing very heavy work. Now they're on the rootless scene. The casual scene is still going strong. The thing is, it's Irish employers exploiting Irish people. It's very degrading too, if you're passed over.'
Loneliness as well as the need for practical help ensures that many Irish people stick together. One of the subjects discussed at a seminar on emigration in Kilburn was the trauma experienced by Irish emigrants, revealed in statistics which showed a disproportionately high number of Irish admissions to mental hospitals. One of the reasons for the sense of alienation was the sense of being foreigners in England and the hostility they experienced from many sections of the media and the police. Those who leave the country voluntarily are more likely to adapt well than those, in the majority, forced to do so out of economic necessity. Most of those who attended the seminar in Kilburn were in no doubt about the category they belonged to. 'I love Ireland', says Andrew Fox. 'I wouldn't have left it, only there was no work there.'
11.According to the passage, the majority of emigrants from Ireland to London______
A. have useful qualification
B. encounter problems typical of the 21st century
C. are in the employ of service industries
D. are in the same position as their predecessors
12. What young Irish people want when whey emigrant to London is______
A. to have a better chance of getting jobs
B. to get somewhere to live
C. to enjoy life in an international city
D. to live on the social security system
13. Which of the following is TRUE about Conway House?
A. You cannot have lunch and dinner there.
B. You have to be emigrants to stay here.
C. It is not possible to stay there over 6 months.
D. It is too expensive to live there.
14. The main problem in living in a squat is__________
A. the lack of comfort
B. the danger of a fire
C. the violation of the law
D. the absence of security
15. The trauma experienced by Irish emigrants is demonstrated in the fact that_______
A. more Irish emigrants suffer from mental illness
B. many Irish emigrants are arrested by the Police
C. the media is biased against the Irish emigrants
D. the Irish emigrants in London tend to stick together
My first visit to Paris began in the company of some earnest students. My friend and I, therefore being full of independence and the love of adventure, decided to go off on our own and explore Northern France as hitch-hikers.
We managed all right down the main road from Paris to Rouen, because there were lots of vegetable trucks with sympathetic drivers. After that we still made headway along secondary roads to F camp, because we fell in with two family men who had left their wives behind and were off on a spree on their won. In F camp, having decided that it was pointless to reserve money for emergencies such as railway fares, we spent our francs in great contentment, carefully arranging that we should have just enough left for supper and an overnight stay at the Youth Hostel in Dieppe, before catching the early morning boat.
Dieppe was only fifty miles away, so we thought it would be a shame to leave F camp until late in the afternoon.
There is a hill outside F camp, a steep one.We walked up it quite briskly, saying to each other as the lorries climbed past us, that, after all, we couldn't expect a French truck driver to stop on a hill for us. It would be fine going from the top.
It probably would have been fine going at the top, if we had got there before the last of the evening truck convoy had passed on its way westwards along the coast. We failed to realize that at first, and sat in dignified patience on the crest of the hill. We were sitting there two and a half hours later-still dignified, but less patient. Then we went about two hundred yards further down to a little bistro, to have some coffee and ask advice from the proprietor. He told us that there would be no more trucks and explained that our gentlemanly signaling stood out the slightest chance of stopping a private motorist.
"This is the way one does it!" he exclaimed, jumping into the centre of the road and completely barring the progress of a vast, gleaming car which contained a rather supercilious Belgian family, who obviously thought nothing to all of the two bedraggled English students. However, having had to stop, they let us into the back seat, after carefully removing all objects of value, including their daughter.
Conversation was not easy, but we were more than content to stay quiet—until the car halted suddenly in an out-of-the-way village far from the main road, and we learned to our surprise that the Belgians went no farther. They left us standing disconsolate on a deserted country road, looking sorrowfully after them as their rear lamp disappeared into the darkness.
We walked in what we believed to be the general direction of Dieppe for a long time. At about 11 p.m., we heard, far in the distance, a low-pitched staccato rumbling. We ran to a rise in the road and from there we saw, as if it were some mirage, a vast French truck approaching us. It was no time for half measures. My friend sat down by the roadside and hugged his leg, and looked as much like a road accident as nature and the circumstances permitted.I stood in the middle of the road and held my arms out. As soon as the lorry stopped as rushed to either side and gabbled out a plea in poor if voluble French for a lift to Dieppe.
There were two aboard, the driver and his relief, and at first they thought we were a holdup. When we got over that, they let us in, and resumed the journey.
We reached the Youth Hostel at Dieppe at about 1:30 a.m., or as my friend pointed out, precisely 3 hours after all doors had been lockeD.This, in fact, was not true, because after we climbed over a high wall and tiptoed across the forecourt, we discovered that the door to the washroom was not properly secured, and we were able to make our stealthy way to the men’s dormitory where we slept soundly until roused at 9:30 the following morning.
16.The author decided to hitch-hike with his friend in Northern France as______
A. the students didn’t want to go with him
B. it was difficult to find public transport
C. He didn’t want to stay with the students
D. He had never explored the place.
17.Why did the author and his friend spend most of their money in France?
A. They saw no reason to save it.
B. The fares to Dieppe were very cheap.
C. They knew there would be emergencies.
D. They were leaving early next morning.
18. The bistro proprietor thought that cars wouldn’t stop for the two students because______
A. only gentlemen could understand their signals
B. they only signaled to gentleman
C. they were too polite to signal
D. their signals were too polite
19. The author’s friend sat down at the side of the road because_____
A. he was too tired to walk any further
B. he had had an accident and hurt his leg
C. he thought the lorry driver would see him clearly there.
D. he wanted to give the lorry driver a reason to stop
20.They asked the lorry driver for a lift in_____
A. rapid and accurate French
B. slow and imprecise French
C. quick and inaccurate French
D. hesitant and precise French
21-25 (选自 China Daily)
One point three billion metric tons - that's how much food that we waste each year.Not an easy number to wrap one's head around. Try to imagine 143,000 Eiffel Towers stacked one on top of the other-together they'd weigh around 1.3 billion tons. The sheer scale of the number makes it practically impossible to grasp, no matter how you come at it.
Rendering the figure all the more unfathomable is the fact that alongside this massive wastage of food, 840 million people experience chronic hunger on a daily basis. Many millions more suffer from "silent hunger" - malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies.
For the more economically minded, here's another number: the economic cost of food wastage runs around $750 billion per annum. This is expressed in producer prices; if we were to consider retail prices and the wider impacts on the environment including climate change, the figure would be far higher.
When food is lost or wasted, the energy, land and water resources that went into producing it are also squandered -while at the same time large amounts of greenhouse gases are released into the atmosphere during production, processing, and cooking.
We simply cannot tolerate the wastage of 1.3 billion tons of food per year-one-third of the world's annual food production. Not from an ethical or environmental perspective, not from an economic or development perspective, and certainly not from a food security perspective.
In developed countries, food retailing practices require a rethink. For example, rejection of food products on the basis of aesthetic concerns is a major cause of food waste. Some supermarkets have already begun relaxing standards on fruit appearance, selling "misshaped" items at reduced prices and helping raise awareness that "ugly does not mean bad." More approaches like this, that find markets or uses for surplus food, are needed.
Both businesses and households should monitor to see where and how they waste food and take corrective steps, because prevention of waste is even more important than recycling or composting.Unlike the mindboggling figure of 1.3 billion tons, these simple steps are easy enough to grasp-and within reach of each of us. The world has enough on its plate-food wastage is something we can all do something about now.
21.Why does the author mention Eiffel Tower in the introductory paragraph?
A. To mean that more towers like Eiffel could be built without food losses and waste
B. To imply that it is now impossible to build an Eiffel Tower elsewhere in the world.
C. To create a visual picture of the size of the world’s food losses and wastage per year.
D. To compare the cost of Eiffel Tower with that of the world’s annual food wastage.
22. One point three billion tons of food is wasted annually in the world, which______
A. gives off tons of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere
B. accounts for one-third of the world’s total food production
C. amounts to what can otherwise feed 840 million starving people
D. makes up 40 percent of the total production in developing countries
23. In which of the following stages is food likely to be wasted in some developed countries
24. Which of the following statements is TRUE according to the concluding paragraph?
A. Business should do more than individuals to prevent waste of all sizes
B. It is up to every one of us to do something about the shocking food waste.
C. People should keep track of where food is wasted and recycle the waste
D. Corrective steps are well beyond the reach of the ordinary people.
25. What would be the best title for the passage?
A. Time to Stop Food Wastage
B. Global Food Security
C. Ways to Eradicate Chronic Hunger
D. Food Production and Waste
Translation (E-C) 选自Economist
ROBOTS came into the world as a literary device whereby the writers and film-makers of the early 20th century could explore their hopes and fears about technology, as the era of the automobile, telephone and aeroplane picked up its reckless jazz-age speed.
Since moving from the page and screen to real life, robots have been a mild disappointment. They do some things that humans cannot do themselves, like exploring Mars, and a host of things people do not much want to do, like dealing with unexploded bombs or vacuuming floors. And they are very useful in bits of manufacturing.
But reliable robots—especially ones required to work beyond the safety cages of a factory floor—have proved hard to make, and robots are still pretty stupid. So although they fascinate people, they have not yet made much of a mark on the world.
That seems about to change. The exponential growth in the power of silicon chips, digital sensors and high-bandwidth communications improves robots just as it improves all sorts of other products.