来源：网络 发布时间：2015-01-16 作者：上外培训网
When a study released earlier this year linked sleeping pills to an increase in cancer and death rates, more than a few insomniacs probably had an even harder time getting to sleep.
Though the findings, published online in the journal BMJ, indicated only that there was a correlation between sleep aids, mortality and disease, that was little solace for Americans who filled some 60 million prescriptions for the medications last year.
"The risks of sleeping pills are real," Gayle Greene, who has been taking sleeping pills for three decades, wrote in The Times. "But so are the risks of chronic sleep loss. As the pioneering sleep scientist William Dement has argued, 'sleep is the most important predictor of how long you will live - perhaps more important than smoking, exercise or high blood pressure.'"
Ten to 20 percent of the world's population uses sleeping pills or tranquilizers, according to Global Industry Analysts, a worldwide market research firm. It estimates the global market for sleep aids will be worth $9 billion by 2015.
"It's difficult to go to a Manhattan cocktail party these days and not get roped into a discussion of someone's insomnia or the relative merits of melatonin and 'snore absorption rooms,'" Henry Alford wrote in The Times. And he recounts "a slightly defensive diatribe called 'Why I Have Recently Purchased a $60,000 Mattress.'"
Mr. Alford's mission for better slumber took him to the Benjamin Hotel in Midtown Manhattan, which has a sleep concierge and lets guests choose from 12 pillows like Buckwheat, Maternity, Lullaby, Swedish Memory and Satin Beauty. It also offers massages, snacks, white-noise machines and masks.
Parents tire their children out by getting them outside and having them run around, and maybe that's what people really need, especially as they get older. American health statistics show that more than half of adults ages 60 and over have trouble sleeping.
A 2011 study at the University of Massachusetts of 22 adults ages 65 to 81 found a strong link between physical activity and the quality of sleep, The Times reported. Better sleep did not take much, Jane Kent-Braun, a professor and physiologist who oversaw the study, told The Times. "These were people who were just out there moving around, gardening, walking the dog."
Some experts believe that the recent spike in diagnoses of attention hyperactivity disorder among children is the result of overlooked sleep disorders.
"Lack of sleep is an insult to a child's developing body and mind that can have a huge impact," Karen Bonuck, a professor of family medicine in New York and author of a study on children and sleep disorders, told The Times. "It's incredible that we don't screen for sleep problems the way we screen for vision and hearing problems."
Some believe that building mattresses out of metal with elaborate spring systems is part of the problem. Coco-Mat, which has 60 stores in 11 countries and opened a shop in Manhattan in late March, sells mattresses that are handmade in Greece, from natural materials like seaweed, horsehair, goose down, wool and coconut or cactus fibers.
"People have slept on springs for only about 50 years," Paul Elfmorfidis, Coco-Mat's founder, told The Times. "But for thousands of years before that, humanity slept on nonmetal beds."
【点评】第三篇文章是典型的医疗健康类，Mysteries of pillow time(出自：http://www.chinadaily.com.cn)结合药物滥用和失眠问题。文章结构与我们老师在课堂上与同学们总结的结构基本吻合：提出问题(过度使用安眠药会引 发更严重的问题)--分析问题(失眠问题与身体状况)--解 决问题(安眠药危险，我们换枕头，换床垫)，文章难度不大，生僻词汇不多，基本掌握文章结构应该就能解题。与我们以往在课上讲到医疗健康类话题中的“滥用 抗抑郁药”有换汤不换药。而我们的第五篇，又老生常谈提到“抑郁”话题，可见，我们现在的日子真的不好过，看到读中口的同学，也许下次可以直接问：“今 天，你抑郁了吗?”“今天，你吃药了吗?”
Like many other primary care doctors, I sometimes sense the shadow of depression hovering at the edges of the exam room. I am haunted by one mother with severe postnatal depression. Years ago, I took proper care of the baby, but I missed the mother's distress, as did everyone else.
Nowadays it's increasingly clear that pediatricians, obstetrician-gynecologists and internists must be more alert. Research into postnatal depression in particular has underscored the importance of checking up on parents' mental health in the first months of a baby's life.
But a parent's depression, it turns out, can be linked to all kinds of problems, even in the lives of older children.
''Depression is an illness that feeds upon itself,'' said Dr. William Beardslee, professor of child psychiatry at Harvard Medical School, who has spent his career studying depression in children and developing family interventions. ''Very often people who are depressed don't seek the care they need.''
In 2009, the Institute of Medicine and the National Research Council issued a report, ''Depression in Parents, Parenting, and Children,'' that summarized a large and growing body of research on the ways that parental depression can affect how people take care of their children, and how those children fare.
One in five Americans will suffer from depression at some point, noted Dr. Beardslee, who was on the committee that issued the report. ''Untreated, unrecognized parental depression can lead to negative consequences for kids,'' he said, ranging from poor school performance to increased visits to the emergency room to poorer peer relationships and adolescent depression.
Moreover, there is plenty of evidence that when depressed parents get treatment and help with their parenting, families are much better off.
Depression is certainly treatable, said Dr. Mary Jane England, a psychiatrist and professor of health policy and management at Boston University School of Public Health, who led the Institute of Medicine committee.
But, she added, ''because of stigma and lack of training of some of our primary care practitioners, we don't pick it up.''
Depression damages the interactions between parents and children, and disrupts family routines and rituals. Children with a depressed parent are themselves more likely to manifest symptoms of depression, research shows, along with other psychiatric problems and behavior. issues. They are more likely to make visits to the emergency room and more likely to be injured.
A depressed parent may have trouble following a plan of preventive care if a child has a medical problem like asthma. But higher rates of depression in parents whose children have chronic medical problems may also reflect the stress of dealing with those problems, especially for psychologically vulnerable parents.
Depression may become part of a vicious cycle in these families: An overwhelmed and depressed parent is less able to follow a complex medical regimen, and a child ends up in the emergency room or the hospital, creating more pressure and more stress for the family.
''There is a high burden of maternal depression, anxiety,'' among mothers bringing children to an emergency room, said Dr. Jacqueline M. Grupp-Phelan, a pediatric emergency room specialist at Cincinnati Children's Hospital. ''It influences their own perception of how well they can deal with their kids' problems.''
It's also become clear that there may be genetic propensities to depression. Its appearance in parent and child may in part reflect inherited vulnerabilities.
And all of that reaffirms how critical it is for primary care doctors to ask the right questions and offer diagnosis without stigma.
''Moms appreciate being asked,'' said Dr. Grupp-Phelan, who has done research on the acceptability of mental health screening. ''It may be the only time they've been asked about their depression.''
I often find myself urging mothers to pay more attention to their own medical problems and mental health. Pediatric colleagues tell stories of depressed parents who break down and cry during a child's visit, but then say they're too busy taking care of the family to get help for themselves.
I don't love the ''do it for your child's sake'' argument; I worry it suggests that the parent isn't important in her own right. But to be honest, I make that argument anyway, because it works.
''They are open to doing something about their own issues because it could help their kid, and that's a very strong hook for mothers,'' Dr. Grupp-Phelan said. And when the ''doing something'' includes a focus on the whole family, those routines and rituals and routines can be rebuilt, and there's plenty of research to show that children are resilient.
So if parents are open to being asked, and if we know that identifying depression has important benefits for our patients and their parents, why aren't we better at asking?
As a pediatrician, I tend to focus on the child, of course. Asking mental health questions of the parent can sometimes feel intrusive or invasive.
And there's the worry that even if you identify a problem, there may not be good help available. When poverty and lack of access are combined with parental depression, not surprisingly, the risks are that much greater.
And in looking for parental depression, in asking about it and discussing the risks, there may be a sense that doctors are placing blame. I think we fear that parents who are struggling with these shadows will feel accused and inadequate.
''The last thing in the world we should be doing is blaming parents,'' Dr. Beardslee said. ''We should be reaching out and offering hope.''
This is a more complete version of the story than the one that appeared in print.
【点评】 本文属于医疗类文章，And Under: Parents' Mental Health Is Critical to Children's Care(出自：http://www.nytimes.com)作者作为一个儿科医生的角度思考平时大家比较容易忽略的问题，即儿童有病，很多情况下父母也会是一种原因。调查发现父母如果患有抑郁 症的话，在诸多方面都会对自己的孩子构成负面的影响，所以要解决孩子的问题，就应该先解决父母的问题，不然也是治标不治本，但是由于问题的特殊性，抑郁症 问题一直是人们的敏感话题可能会涉及到隐私，而且也会让父母感觉自己有负罪感，所以作者提出这样的问题，并思考解决方案。
The invention of banking preceded that of coinage. Banking originated something like 4,000 years ago in Ancient Mesopotamia, in present-day Iraq, where the royal palaces and temples provided secure places for the safekeeping of grain and other commodities. Receipts came to be used for transfers not only to the original depositors but also to third parties. Eventually private houses in Mesopotamia also got involved in these banking operations, and laws regulating them were included in the code of Hammurabi, the legal code developed not long afterwards.
In Ancient Egypt too, the centralisation of harvests in state warehouses led to the development of a system of banking. Written orders for the withdrawal of separate lots of grain by owners whose crops had been deposited there for safety and convenience, or which had been compulsorily deposited to the credit of the king, soon became used as a more general method of payment of debts to other people, including tax gatherers, priests and traders. Even after the introduction of coinage, these Egyptian grain banks served to reduce the need for precious metals, which tended to be reserved for foreign purchases, particularly in connection with military activities.
5. In both Mesopotamia and Egypt the banking systems
A. were initially limited to transactions involving depositors.
B. were created to provide income for the king.
C. required a large staff to administer them.
D. grew out of the provision of storage facilities for food.
6. What does the writer suggest about banking?
A. It can take place without the existence of coins.
B. It is likely to begin when people are in debt.
C. It normally requires precious metals.
D. It was started to provide the state with an income.
【点评】The invention of banking(出自：http://www.cambridge.org)
再次证明出题老师偷懒了，再一次直接用了Cambridge Certificate上面用的阅读，尽管我们还没有看到题目，但根据以往的经验，题目一定是无修改照搬。原文有3个extracts,但现在老师能搜索 到的只有其中一个extract,讲的银行的起源;既然是起源，一定跟古代有关，也一定不会跟钱有关，但文章信息还是很明确：where the royal palaces and temples provided secure places for the safekeeping of grain and other commodities./ the centralization of harvests in state warehouses led to the development of a system of banking.两道题，一道细节，一道推断，也符合这种类型文章的出题风格。