2009年9月中级口译考试真题及参考答案(4)

来源:网络   发布时间:2015-01-26   作者:上外培训网

  真题练习是口译备考必不可少的一个复习方法,上外口译整理了近几年来中高级口译相关真题及参考答案——study skills 部分,助大家备考一臂之力。

  SECTION 2: STUDY SKILLS (45 minutes)

  Directions: In this section, you will read several passages. Each passage is followed by several questions based on its content. You are to choose ONE best answer, (A), (B), (C) or (D), to each question. Answer all the questions following each passage on the basis of what is stated or implied in that passage and write the letter of the answer you have chosen in the corresponding space in your ANSWER BOOKLET.

  PASSAGE 2

  IT’S Monday morning, and you’re having trouble waking your teenagers. You’re not alone. Indeed, each morning, few of the country’s 17 million high school students are awake enough to get much out of their first class, particularly if it starts before 8 a.m. Sure, many of them stayed up too late the night before, but not because they wanted to.

  Research shows that teenagers’ body clocks are set to a schedule that is different from that of younger children or adults. This prevents adolescents from dropping off until around 11 p.m., when they produce the sleep-inducing hormone melatonin, and waking up much before 8 a.m. when their bodies stop producing melatonin.

  The result is that the first class of the morning is often a waste, with as many as 28 percent of students falling asleep, according to a National Sleep Foundation poll. Some are so sleepy they don’t even show up, contributing to failure and dropout rates.

  Here’s an idea: stop focusing on testing and instead support changing the hours of the school day, starting it later for teenagers and ending it later for all children. Indeed, no one does well when they’re sleep-deprived, but insufficient sleep among children has been linked to obesity and to learning issues like attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. You’d think this would spur educators to take action, and a few have.

  In 2002, high schools in Jessamine County in Kentucky pushed back the first bell to 8:40 a.m., from 7:30 a.m. Attendance immediately went up, as did scores on standardized tests, which have continued to rise each year. Districts in Virginia and Connecticut have achieved similar success. In Minneapolis and Edina,

  Minn., which instituted high school start times of 8:40 a.m. and 8:30 a.m. respectively in 1997, students’ grades rose slightly and lateness, behavioral problems and dropout rates decreased. Later is also safer. When high schools in Fayette County in Kentucky delayed their start times to 8:30 a.m., the number of teenagers involved in car crashes dropped, even as they rose in the state.

  So why hasn’t every school board moved back that first bell? Well, it seems that improving teenagers’ performance takes a back seat to more pressing concerns: the cost of additional bus service, the difficulty of adjusting after-school activity schedules and the inconvenience to teachers and parents.

  But few of these problems actually come to pass, according to the Center for Applied Research and Educational Improvement at the University of Minnesota. In Kentucky and Minnesota, simply flipping the starting times for the elementary and high schools meant no extra cost for buses.

  There are other reasons to start and end school at a later time. According to Paul Reville, a professor of education policy at Harvard and chairman of the Massachusetts Board of Education, “Trying to cram everything our 21st-century students need into a 19th-century six-and-a-half-hour day just isn’t working.” He says that children learn more at a less frantic pace, and that lengthening the school day would help “close the achievement gap between disadvantaged students and their better-off peers.”

  PASSAGE 3

  It's estimated that every year 100,000 children aged 16 and under run away from home. The London Refuge, an unremarkable house on an unremarkable street, is the only place in Britain that will give them a bed. Last year it gave sanctuary to 238 children, of whom the youngest was 11. What happened to the other 99,762? Nobody knows, although it's a fair bet that some of them ended up on the streets, that some fell into inappropriate and dangerous company, that some didn't survive. “The mere fact that they're running away puts them at risk,” says Lorna Simpson, the refuge's deputy manager. “On the streets they'll mix with other young people. They're so naive; they don't understand that people who are nice to them will want payback. Our job is to make them safe.”

  Simpson, a former social worker, is a calm woman of great warmth. The refuge has six beds and has been open since 1993, often with the threat of closure hanging over it. The problem has nothing to do with the quality of its service – Ofsted ranks it as outstanding - and everything to do with funding. A week's placement costs ?2,278 and three successive governments have argued that the annual running costs of ?720,000 should be locally funded. But because it is used by children from many parts of London, and beyond, local authorities are reluctant to contribute.

  The Government has now agreed to work on a strategy to support runaway children in England and Wales, which is rich after its withdrawal of funding from the refuge in December. Since then the NSPCC, which runs the refuge in conjunction with St Christopher's Fellowship, has financed it through a donation from an individual, but that money will last only until late next year. “Without this facility there's nothing; children who run away are on the street,” says Nasima Patel, the assistant director of the NSPCC. “One of the strengths of the refuge is that children who have left home can ring up directly and will get a bed and supportive staff without having to go through a process of assessment. That's hard to re-create in statutory arrangements and if you're on the run you need somewhere to go and someone to talk to. We're convinced that direct access will always be needed.”

  The refuge accommodates six children plus staff. Many of the admissions are at night and children can stay up to 21 days in three months, although most stay for three to five days. They find it through social services, through Child Line (although the number is given only to children who have already left home) and through word of mouth; only when they arrive do staff discover their circumstances. Simpson recalls the injured young boy who ran four miles without shoes after his dad had beaten him.

  “They're running away from everything you can think of,” she says. “Arguments with step-parents, sexual abuse, alcoholic parents, being left to bring up their younger siblings, neglected children who have been failed by social services, girls who have been trafficked. We get doctors' and lawyers' children who run away because they want more pocket money, or want to stay out later than their parents allow. They've been given everything, they get to 15 and no one thinks to pull the reins in. By that time it's too late; they rebel.”

  Most of the children are from families known to social services, and for them the refuge's ordered regimen is a welcome contrast to the chaos they know. Staff listens without judging and without encouraging dependency, trying to establish why the children have run away. The aim is to get them home or into the care of social services and, after discharge from the refuge, a family support worker is available.

 

  STUDY SKILLS答案与评析

  中口阅读第二篇文章The Early Bird Gets the Bad Grade取自于新东方课堂上经常提到的

  英美主流报刊New York Times(2008年1月14日) 话题属于教育类和医疗健康类交叉话题。

  从体裁上看,依然没有逃离Research研究类型文章的大体框架。文章内容是有违传统的早

  期的鸟儿有虫吃的思路,而是一反常规,提出了学生早期会影响到他们的学习效率,建议

  能够推迟上课时间。所以第10题文章主旨是starting the first class late is advantageous inmore than one way.

  IT’S Monday morning, and you’re having trouble waking your teenagers. You’re not alone.

  Indeed, each morning, few of the country’s 17 million high school students are awake enough to

  get much out of their first class, particularly if it starts before 8 a.m. Sure, many of them stayed up

  too late the night before, but not because they wanted to. 第一段是以一个现象导入,不需要细

  读,直接去找下面一段的对例子的总结句。

  Research shows that teenagers’ body clocks are set to a schedule that is different from that of

  younger children or adults. This prevents adolescents from dropping off until around 11 p.m.,

  when they produce the sleep-inducing hormone melatonin, and waking up much before 8 a.m.

  when their bodies stop producing melatonin.

  在研究类型文章中,文章的总结句多是以research/result/expert shows 为开头,第6 题的出题

  点也恰恰是在这二段里,人的body clock 是受到了一种叫做melatonin 的人体分泌物的影响,

  所以第6 题应该选择A。

  The result is that the first class of the morning is often a waste, with as many as 28 percent of

  students falling asleep, according to a National Sleep Foundation poll. Some are so sleepy they

  don’t even show up, contributing to failure and dropout rates.

  第三段的重点依然是落在了the result is that…这样一个结论句上面,说明起得早会影响第一

  节课的效率,对于有数字出现的内容则不用祥读。

  Here’s an idea: stop focusing on testing and instead support changing the hours of the school day,

  starting it later for teenagers and ending it later for all children. Indeed, no one does well when

  they’re sleep-deprived, but insufficient sleep among children has been linked to obesity and to

  learning issues like attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. You’d think this would spur educators

  to take action, and a few have.

  考生应该非常熟悉这一个词组 “Here’s an idea”后面提到了具体的解决方法:停止应试教育,

  把学校的上课时间和下课时间推迟。第七题的细节题依然也是围绕着主题:缺乏睡眠产生的

  影响,诸如obesity 肥胖和attention scant 注意力不集中的问题。

  In 2002, high schools in Jessamine County in Kentucky pushed back the first bell to 8:40 a.m.,

  from 7:30 a.m. Attendance immediately went up, as did scores on standardized tests, which have

  continued to rise each year. Districts in Virginia and Connecticut have achieved similar success. In

  Minneapolis and Edina, Minn., which instituted high school start times of 8:40 a.m. and 8:30 a.m.

  respectively in 1997, students’ grades rose slightly and lateness, behavioral problems and dropout

  rates decreased. Later is also safer. When high schools in Fayette County in Kentucky delayed

  their start times to 8:30 a.m., the number of teenagers involved in car crashes dropped, even as

  they rose in the state.

  第8 题根据题型考的是并列考点,应该选择的是C 选项,虽然C 选项在该段中出现了,但

  是C 是误选项,因为推迟上课时间是导致青少年事故率下跌,但是整体的事故率还是上升

  的。

  So why hasn’t every school board moved back that first bell? Well, it seems that improving

  teenagers’ performance takes a back seat to more pressing concerns: the cost of additional bus

  service, the difficulty of adjusting after-school activity schedules and the inconvenience to

  teachers and parents.

  But few of these problems actually come to pass, according to the Center for Applied Research

  and Educational Improvement at the University of Minnesota. In Kentucky and Minnesota, simply

  flipping the starting times for the elementary and high schools meant no extra cost for buses.

  There are other reasons to start and end school at a later time. According to Paul Reville, a

  professor of education policy at Harvard and chairman of the Massachusetts Board of Education,

  “Trying to cram everything our 21st-century students need into a 19th-century six-and-a-half-hour

  day just isn’t working.” He says that children learn more at a less frantic pace, and that

  lengthening the school day would help “close the achievement gap between disadvantaged

  students and their better-off peers.”

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