来源：网络 发布时间：2015-01-30 作者：上外培训网
We are not who we think we are.
The American self-image is suffused with the golden glow of opportunity. We think of the United States as a land of unlimited possibility, not so much a classless society but as a place where class is mutable-a place where brains, energy and ambition are what counts, not the circumstances of one's birth.
The Economic Mobility Project, an ambitious research initiative led by Pew Charitable Trusts, looked at the economic fortunes of a large group of families over time, comparing the income of parents in the late 1960s with the income of their children in the late 1990s and early 2000s. Here is the finding: "The 'rags to riches' story is much more common in Hollywood than on Main Street. Only 6 percent of children born to parents with family income at the very bottom move to the top.
That is right, just 6 percent of children born to parents who ranked in the bottom fifth of the study sample, in terms of income, were able to bootstrap their way into the top fifth. Meanwhile, an incredible 42 percent of children born into that lowest quintile are still stuck at the bottom, having been unable to climb a single rung of the income ladder.
It is noted that even in Britain-a nation we think of as burdened with a hidebound class system-children who are born poor have a better chance of moving up. When the three studies were released, most reporters focused on the finding that African-Americans born to middle-class or upper middle-class families are earning slightly less, in inflation-adjusted dollars, than did their parents.
One of the studies indicates, in fact, that most of the financial gains white families have made in the past three decades can be attributed to the entry of white women into the labor force. This is much less true for African-Americans.
The picture that emerges from all the quintiles, correlations and percentages is of a nation in which, overall, "the current generation of adults is better off than the previous one", as one of the studies notes.
The median income of the families in the sample group was $55,600 in the late 1960s; their children's median family income was measured at $71,900. However, this rising tide has not lifted all boats equally. The rich have seen far greater income gains than have the poor.
Even more troubling is that our notion of America as the land of opportunity gets little support from the data. Americans move fairly easily up and down the middle rungs of the ladder, but there is "stickiness at the ends" - four out of ten children who are born poor will remain poor, and four out often who are born rich will stay rich.
21.What did the Economic Mobility Project find in its research?
(A) Children from low-income families are unable to bootstrap their way to the top.
(B) Hollywood actors and actresses are upwardly mobile from rags to riches.
(C) The rags to riches story is more fiction than reality.
(D)The rags to riches story is only true for a small minority of whites.
22.The word "quintile" (para.4) refers to _______ in the passage.
(A) the bottom fifth
(B) the study data
(C) the sample group
(D) the lowest family income
23.It can be inferred from the undertone of the writer that America, as a classless society, should _______.
(A) perfect its self-image as a land of opportunity
(B) have a higher level of upward mobility than Britain
(C) enable African-Americans to have exclusive access to well-paid employment
(D) encourage the current generation to work as hard as the previous generation
24.Which of the following statements is TRUE according to the passage?
(A) The US is a land where brains, energy and ambition are what counts.
(B) Inequality persists between whites and blacks in financial gains.
(C) Middle-class families earn slightly less with inflation considered.
(D) Children in lowest-income families manage to climb a single rung of the ladder.
25.What might be the best title for this passage?
(A) Social Upward Mobility.
(B) Incredible Income Gains.
(C) Inequality in Wealth.
(D) America Not Land of Opportunity.
I am always a little puzzled when I hear people complain about the difficulties of finding a good job. Young people in their 20s express dissatisfaction that all the good jobs have been taken by those in their 40s. People in their 40s, trapped in the middle groups of the workforce, complain about waiting for their elders to make room for them at the top. Older employees worry about being forced out of the job market prematurely by younger people willing to work at entry-level wages. It is not a pretty picture.
But I do not buy it. In my view, differences between generations are not a problem but an opportunity-if you remember to apply some basic principles of self-marketing. Most of us learned from Marketing 101 textbooks that there are four phases in the life cycle of a product or brand. The names may differ, but essentially the four phases are Introduction, Growth, Maturity and Decline. As a manager of high-profile athletes for more than 30 years, I know that these four phases certainly apply to the career and marketability of an athlete.
An athlete's introduction or start-up phase is when he or she starts competing, does well and captures the attention of people in the sport. Introduction turns into the growth phase when the athlete goes from being a promising performer to an established star. That's when everybody wants a piece of the athlete's time and he must stay focused on his primary talent and not get distracted by side issues.
For an athlete, the toughest thing about the mature phase may simply be recognizing that he or she is in it. If you're marketing a bar of soap it is easy to tell if the product is mature. It is there in the stagnant or shrinking sales figures. It is different with athletes. Not only do they think the growth phase will never end, but they often deny that there is any decrease in their athletic skills or marketability, no matter what the numbers say.
The decline phase for an athlete may sound harsh, but it doesn't have to be if he or she thinks of it as a reflective phase. In this phase an athlete can have tremendous future as a legendary figure who functions as an ambassador for his or her sport. If you substitute "employee" for "athlete" in these examples, these four phases apply to any individual's career.
I genuinely believe that whenever people face a career crisis, a big reason is because they are "out of phase." I have always been a tremendous advocate of recruiting older workers. With the massive downsizing of corporate America, there are tens of thousands of talented men and women over the age of 50 who feel shut out of the work-place. To me, these people are a gold mine-not because they are available but rather because they possess the qualities that employees in the introduction and growth phases lack, namely wisdom and experience. And since many of them received generous early-retirement packages, money is not their sole motivation. In other words, they are affordable.
If I were marketing myself in the mature phase, I'd focus on these qualities. Wisdom, experience and affordability make up a potent package. But you can not do that unless you first recognize and fully appreciate the phase you are in.
26.What can be concluded from the passage?
(A) Most young people cannot find a job if they don't study the four phase theory.
(B) Young people with good jobs have studied the four phase theory.
(C) Job seekers should fully understand the phase they are in.
(D) Older employees will be forced out of job market by the young.
27.Who are complaining about the difficulties of getting a good job at the top?
(A) Young people hopping from job to job.
(B) People in their forties.
(C) Older employees with the likelihood of early retirement.
(D) People not completing the four phases in their career cycle.
28.Which of the following statements is TRUE according to the author?
(A) One generation's ambition will sooner or later become a reality.
(B) Finding a good job mainly depends on one's age.
(C) Differences between generations are more an opportunity than a problem.
(D) The marketability of a product can be compared with that of an athlete.
29.According to the author, in which of the four phases can an athlete have a tremendous appeal?
(A) Introduction phase.
(B) Growth phase.
(C) Mature phase.
(D) Decline phase.
30.The author thinks highly of older employees because _______.
(A) they are good at marketing themselves
(B) they are obedient and can be easily controlled
(C) they possess better qualities in the growth phase
(D) they have more wisdom, experience and affordability
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