来源：网络 发布时间：2015-02-10 作者：上外培训网
SECTION 2: STUDY SKILLS (45 minutes)
Directions: In this section, you will read several passages. Each passage is followed by several questions based on its content. You are to choose ONE best answer, (A), (B), (C) or (D), to each question. Answer all the questions following each passage on the basis of what is stated or implied in that passage and write the letter of the answer you have chosen in the corresponding space in your ANSWER BOOKLET.
The purpose of the American court system is to protect the rights of the people. According to American law, if someone is accused of a crime, he or she is considered innocent until the court proves that the person is guilty. In other words, it is the responsibility of the court to prove that a person is guilty. It is not the responsibility of the person to prove that he or she is innocent.
In order to arrest a person, the police have to be reasonably sure that a crime has been committed. The police must give the suspect the reasons why they are arresting him and tell him his rights under the law. Then the police take the suspect to the police station to “book” him. “Booking means that the name of the person and the charges against him are formally listed at the police station.
The next step is for the suspect to go before a judge. The judge decides whether the suspect should be kept in jail or released. If the suspect has no previous criminal record and the judge feels that he will return to court rather than run away—for example, because he owns a house and has a family—he can go free. Otherwise, the suspect must put up bail. At this time, too, the judge will appoint a court layer to defend the suspect if he can’t afford one.
The suspect returns to court a week or two later. A lawyer from the district attorney’s office presents a case against the suspect. This is called a hearing. The attorney may present evidence as well as witnesses. The judge at the hearing then decides whether there is enough reason to hold a trial. If the judge decides that there is sufficient evidence to call for a trial, he or she sets a date for the suspect to appear in court to formally plead guilty or not guilty.
At the trial, a jury of 12 people listens to the evidence from both attorneys and hears the testimony of the witnesses. Then the jury goes into a private room to consider the evidence and decide whether the defendant is guilty of the crime. If the jury decides that the defendant is innocent, he goes free. However, if he is convicted, the judge sets a date for the defendant to appear in court again for sentencing. At this time, the judge tells the convicted person what his punishment will be. The judge may sentence him to prison, order him to pay a fine, or place him on probation.
The American justice system is very complex and sometimes operates slowly. However, every step is designed to protect the rights of the people. These individual rights are the basis, or foundation, of the American government.
1. What is the main idea of the passage?
(A) The American court system requires that a suspect prove that he or she is innocent.
(B) The US court system is designed to protect the rights of the people.
(C) Under the American court system, judge decides if a suspect is innocent or guilty.
(D) The US court system is designed to help the police present a case against the suspect.
2. What follows ‘in other words’ (para.1)?
(A) An example of the previous sentence.
(B) A new idea about the court system.
(C) An item of evidence to call for a trial.
(D) A restatement of the previous sentence.
3. According to the passage, ‘he can go free’ (para.3) means _________.
(A) the suspect is free to choose a lawyer to defend him
(B) the suspect does not have to go to trial because the judge has decided he is innocent
(C) the suspect will be informed by mail whether he is innocent or not
(D) the suspect does not have to wait in jail or pay money until he goes to trial
4. What is the purpose of having the suspect pay bail?
(A) To pay for the judge and the trial.
(B) To pay for a court lawyer to defend the suspect.
(C) To ensure that the suspect will return to court.
(D) To ensure that the suspect will appear in prison.
5. According to the passage, which of the following statements is true?
(A) The American justice system sometimes operates slowly.
(B) The police can arrest a suspect without giving any reasons.
(C) It is the responsibility of the suspect to prove he is innocent.
(D) The jury considers the evidence in the court room.
So you’ve got an invention—you and around 39,000 others each year, according to 2002 statistics!
The 64,000-dollar question, if you have come up with a device which you believe to be the answer to the energy crisis or you’ve invented a lawnmower which cuts grass with a jet of water (not so daft, someone has invented one), is how to ensure you’re the one to reap the rewards of your ingenuity. How will all you garden shed boffins out there keep others from capitalizing on your ideas and lining their pockets at your expense?
One of the first steps to protect your interest is to patent your invention. That can keep it out of the grasp of the pirates for at least the next 20 years. And for this reason inventors in their droves beat a constant trail from all over the country to the doors of an anonymous grey-fronted building just behind London’s Holborn to try and patent their devices.
The building houses the Patent Office. It’s an ant heap of corridors, offices and filing rooms—a sorting house and storage depot for one of the world’s biggest and most varied collections of technical data. Some ten million patents—English and foreign—are listed there.
File after file, catalogue after catalogue detail the brain-children of inventors down the centuries, from a 1600’s machine gun designed to fire square bullets at infidels and round ones at Christians, to present-day laser, nuclear and computer technology.
The first ‘letters patent’ were granted as long ago as 1449 to a Flemish craftsman by the name of John Utynam. The letters, written in Latin, are still on file at the office. They were granted by King Henry VI and entitled Utynam to ‘import into this country’ his knowledge of making stained glass windows in order to install such windows at Eton College.
Present-day patents procedure is a more sophisticated affair than getting a go-ahead note from the monarch. These days the strict procedures governing whether you get a patent for your revolutionary mouse-trap or solar-powered back-scratcher have been reduced to a pretty exact science.
From start to finish it will take around two and a half years and cost £165 for the inventor to gain patent protection for his brainchild. That’s if he’s lucky. By no means all who apply to the Patent Office, which is a branch of the Department of Trade, get a patent.
A key man at the Patent Office is Bernard Partridge, Principal Examiner (Administration), who boils down to one word the vital ingredient any inventor needs before he can hope to overcome the many hurdles in the complex procedure of obtaining a patent—‘ingenuity’.
6. People take out a patent because they want to __________.
(A) keep their ideas from being stolen
(B) reap the rewards of somebody else’s ingenuity
(C) visit the patent office building
(D) come up with more new devices
7. The phrase ‘the brain-children of inventors’ (para.5) means _________.
(A) the children with high intelligence
(B) the inventions that people come up with
(C) a device that a child believes to be the answer to the energy crisis
(D) a lawnmower that an individual has invented to cut grass
8. What have the 1600’s machine gun and the present-day laser in common?
(A) Both were approved by the monarch.
(B) Both were granted by King Henry VI.
(C) Both were rejected by the Department of Trade.
(D) Both were patented.
9. Why is John Utynam still remembered?
(A) He is the first person to get a patent for his revolutionary mouse-trap.
(B) He is the first person to be granted an official patent.
(C) He is the first person to be an officer in the Patent Office.
(D) He is the first person to have invented a lawnmower.
10. According to the passage, how would you describe the complex procedure of obtaining a patent for an invention?
(A) It is rather expensive.
(B) It is an impossible task.
(C) It is extremely difficult.
(D) It is very tricky.
SECTION 2: STUDY SKILLS
1-5 B D D C A 6-10 A B D B C
1. 答案为D)。事实细节题。题干关键词为Before，realize themselves through work，答案出处为第三段的第一句话。原文提到：the less we did the better，比较四个选项，只有D)(他们强烈希望从工作中解脱出来)符合。
2. 答案为A)。词义句义题。该句子在第三段中承接的上文信息是：Mrs. Thatcher认为只有工作才能实现真我，而且该句本身carry on(延续)也告诉我们Blair观点是和Mrs. Thatcher的一致。所以，选择A)，而crusade(十字军、运动)意思不了解并不重要。
4. 答案为D)。结论推断题。答案出处为文章的最后一段。该段开头谈到多数人是以金钱来衡量他们的生活，以此为办事的动力。而且这个例子后半句也提到my friend浪费了很多宝贵时间在路途中，下文则清楚的提到我们应找回我们的时间，不要都花在了工作上。
1. gull：动词，意思为"欺骗、欺哄"，如文章中But my generation has been gulled into thinking that work is real life。
2. factor：常用作名词，表示"因素"的意思。但在本文中最后一段的...without factoring in how much...中用作动词，意思为"考虑到、把......作为因素计入"。
6. 答案为B)。事实细节题。题干关键词为financial retrenchment和题干中出现的人名，答案出处为原文第二段最后两句话。题目中问的是结果，最后一句中的提到：然而，还是外表优美占了上峰。很明显Joseph Hume的反对失败了。
8. 答案为D)。事实细节题。根据题目的具体信息，答案出处为第三段的最后一句话。但问题问的是女王的统治时间，实际上根据Golden 一词可以知道时间是五十年。A)、B)时间明显有误，C)提到是女王的年龄为五十岁，也不正确。
9. 答案为A)。事实细节题。题干关键词为working from home，答案出处为文章最后一段。第一和第二句话中清楚交代了白金汉宫不仅是王室的住所，也是王国政府行政总部和办公场所。比较四个选项，先可排除B)(文中未提到royal family在那工作)和D)(文中未提到royal staff住在那)，A)和C)比较，后者不是关键原因。
10. 答案为D)。事实细节题。题干关键词为most famous，答案出处为原文第四段第二句话。这句话清楚提到了best known 两个字。
1. retrenchment：名词，意思为"削减、紧缩、删除"，如文章中的financial retrenchment
2. reign：动词，意思为"统治、起支配作用、占上峰"，如文章中的elegance reigned。这
如golden wedding jubilee(金婚纪念)。