来源：网络 发布时间：2015-02-25 作者：上外培训网
SECTION 2: STUDY SKILLS (50 minutes)
Pollution control is management of waste materials in order to minimize the effects of pollutants on people and the environment. The quality of human health and of the natural environment depends on adequate pollution control. In the United States much has been done to control the more noticeable pollutants since 1965; more subtle yet still hazardous pollutants, however, remain to be adequately controlled.
Four general approaches to pollution control are: the intermittent reduction of industrial activities during periods of high air-pollution conditions; wider dispersion of pollutants using such devices as taller smokestacks; reduction of pollutants in industrial emission; and change of an industrial process or activity in order to produce less pollution. Taller smokestacks may reduce the concentrations to which local people are exposed, but they are ineffective in reducing overall pollution.
Pollutants removed from waste flows to reduce emissions to air and water may be disposed of by burial or storage on land, practices that pose potential hazards. Recent legislation requiring extensive emissions reductions has resulted in large investments in pollution-treatment technologies.
The fourth approach-changing a manufacturing process or activity in order to produce less pollution-may involve either the production of fewer residuals, by means of an improved process, or the separation and reuse of materials from the waste stream. This method of pollution control is the most effective and, as the costs of pollution control and waste disposal increase, is considered one of the most efficient.
Pollution-treatment systems have been effective in reducing the massive quantities of water and air pollutants that have clogged and choked urban areas. Although the improvements have been significant, recent pollution-control legislation aims to go further in order to control the less visible but often hazardous chemical and gaseous pollutants that still contaminate many waterways and urban atmospheres.
The costs of pollution control-resulting from capital, maintenance, and labor costs, as well as from the cost of additional residuals disposal-generally go up rapidly as a greater percentage of residuals is removed from the waste stream. Damage from pollution, on the other hand, goes down as a greater amount of contaminants is removed. Theoretically, the level of treatment should correspond to a point at which total costs of treatment and of damage to the environment are minimized or the benefits of further treatment are proportionally much smaller than the increased cost. In reality, costs or damages resulting from pollution can rarely be assessed in terms of dollars.
1. According to the passage, all of the following can be objectives of pollution control EXCEPT ________..
(A) reducing polluting substances
(B) controlling all the pollutants
(C) restricting industrial activities
(D) improving the environment and human health
2. What does the author think of the second approach to pollution control?
(A) It is the most effective of the four.
(B) It is effective in some way.
(C) It is economical but not at all effective.
(D) It is not economical.
3. According to the passage, recent pollution-control legislation aims to________.
(A) control less visible as well as less hazardous chemical pollutants
(B) increase the costs of pollution control and waste material disposal
(C) have more strict control over less evident but often dangerous pollutants
(D) eliminate all the hazardous chemical and gaseous pollutants
4. Which of the following statements is NOT true, according to the passage?
(A) Laws have been made to develop pollution-treatment systems.
(B) Pollution-treatment systems have been effective in reducing the massive quantities of water and air pollutants.
(C) Materials from waste treatment processes can be made useful again.
(D) The cost of pollution treatment is proportionally smaller than that of damage to the environment.
5. The overall purpose of the passage is________.
(A) to discuss the ways of and problems in pollution control
(B) to give suggestions about pollution control legislation
(C) to compare and contrast the four approaches to pollution control
(D) to describe what has been achieved in pollution control
Democracy is so much a part of our national identity that it almost seems a birthright. But the irony is that, even as we hope to spread democracy elsewhere, we risk preaching the virtues of a form of government we no longer practice ourselves. The upcoming elections, our proudest celebration of democracy, will highlight some of the threats to our government "by the people".
Technically, every vote is counted. But will the ballot you cast really make a difference? Not likely, unless you live in one of about 17 battleground states where the contest between President Bush and Senator Kerry could easily go either way. If you come from a state that is already locked up by one of the parties-and most of us do-your vote won't carry much weight. That's because of our idiosyncratic electoral college system.
Rather than being elected directly by the people, the President would be chosen by a group of electors appointed, by the state legislatures-with the number of electors determined by the state's total number of representatives to Congress and U. S. Senators. By allotting two Senators to each state, our founders enabled small states to wield an influence greater than their populations alone would warrant, ensuring that the most populous states wouldn't decide every Presidential election. But here's the rub: When it comes to those electoral votes, it's winner-take-all (except in Maine, and Nebraska). Get more popular votes, even if only by one, and you grab all of the state's electoral votes.
There's yet another way that the electoral system undermines our vote. In 2000, the Presidential campaigns largely ignore the 33 states that weren't up for grabs. Even California, Texas and New York-states offering many electoral votes but little partisan competition-fell by the wayside. If victory or defeat depended on the popular vote, then candidates would have to work for each one. Instead, they decide which states are in play, and go after the voter there. They rarely visit other places and the majority of us don't experience a real campaign.
Here's one idea that could help us in future Presidential elections.
In a number of countries, they have a system of direct popular vote, but with a critical provision: in the event that no one wins by a majority, they hold an "instant runoff". That's done by allowing voters to register not only their first choice among the candidates, by also their second and third. If a runoff is needed (say, if the winner among several candidates has less than 50 percent of vote), you can eliminate the candidate with the lowest tally, and transfer his or her supporters to the second choice on their ballots. This process can play out until there is a clear victor. This system give weight to every person's vote-something our system of electors will never do. Only a Constitutional amendment, however, can bring about this change.
6. The function of the quotation mark in the last sentence of the 1st paragraph is to________.
(A) quote what somebody has said
(B) emphasize the threats
(C) achieve sarcasm
(D) create a sense of humor
7. The 17 states the candidates would visit in the campaign are those________.
(A) locked up by one of the parties
(B) offering many electoral votes
(C) that could easily fall by the wayside
(D) where the competition could easily go either way
8. The word "rub" in the 3rd paragraph most probably means________.
(A) the act of rubbing (B) the trouble
(C) the solution (D) the conflicting idea
9. Which of the following statements is NOT true, according to the passage?
(A) Some popular votes may carry more weight than others.
(B) The outcome of the election depends on the electoral votes.
(C) One can win the election only by getting more popular votes.
(D) The electoral system prevents the most populous states from deciding every election.
10. Which of the following is the best title for this passage?
(A) Is Popular Vote More Democratic?
(B) Our Election System: A True Democracy
(C) How to Battle Threats to Our Democracy
(D) How Much Does Your Vote Really Count?
SECTION 2: STUDY SKILLS (50 minutes)
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